Palestinian National Identity Memory and History. The Country of My Dreams. Return to Palestine Dreams and Realities. The Return Process in Comparison. Rewriting of Identities in the Context of Diaspora and Return. Home and the Future of Palestinian Identities.
List of Respondents. Arguably, many of these characteristics can be found in the history and present situation of the Palestinian people. Palestinian migration from the area of historical Palestine can be traced to the beginning of the twentieth century. Palestine had been one of the remote provinces of the Ottoman Empire , economically underdeveloped but politically touched by ideas of Arab nationalism, which resulted in the emergence of a sense of Palestinian identity parallel and overlapping with other local identities and awareness of being Ottoman subjects.
Between the world wars and after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire , Arabs emigrated from Palestine to Europe and the Americas in search of better employment and fortune, or they sought higher education after being introduced to Western ideas and education through missionary schools.
Regional migration, as well as economic exchange and trade between Syria , Lebanon , Palestine, and Jordan , was unrestricted, as the area was considered the unified region of Greater Syria. The first major event that caused a larger emigration movement was the — Arab revolt. In their protest against the British mandate and the increasing numbers of Jewish immigrants supported by Britain , Palestinians were involved in armed clashes and subject to British persecution, while the economic situation deteriorated further and led especially younger males to seek employment, education, and fortune outside of the Middle East.
The war of to and its result, the creation of the State of Israel, simultaneously experienced as An-Nakba the catastrophe for Palestinians, created the Palestinian refugee problem, turning approximately , Palestinians 75 percent of the Palestinian Arab population into refugees. Many of them fled their villages in fear of massacres and battles; others were forcibly evicted or barred from returning to their homes. Ultimately, most of them were prevented from returning to the territory that became the State of Israel.
They took refuge in the West Bank which was controlled by Jordan during the war and declared Jordanian territory in or in the Gaza Strip under Egyptian control. Many others fled to Lebanon and Syria. Refugee camps under UNRWA control were set up, for the most part physically separating Palestinian refugees from the surrounding host societies.
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Arab countries and Palestinians shared political agreement in their refusal to permanently resettle Palestinians in any country other than Palestine. During the s and s Palestinians left Israel, as well as the West Bank and Gaza, in search of employment. The economic situation was extremely depressed, further complicated by political oppression in Israel, where Arab towns and villages stayed under military control.
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Palestinians also went from Gaza to Egypt for education, while others sought employment in the Gulf states, where the discovery of oil demanded skilled laborers and professionals. An estimated , West Bank residents and 75, residents of Gaza were driven from their homes between June and December They fled to Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, and Syria, often moving several times. The rate of emigration slowed between and when a strong sense of holding on to the land based on the ideology of sumud steadfastness emerged and the Palestinian liberation movement, which had consolidated its organizational structure outside of Palestine, instilled a renewed sense of political pride and Palestinian identity.
Stateless People: Palestinians
Relatively steady numbers of Palestinians left the Occupied Palestinian Territories from the mids onward. They responded to Israeli policies of political and cultural oppression and land confiscation. Family and chain migration, as well as the immigration policies of potential host countries, became important factors for Palestinian patterns of temporary settlement in countries throughout the world.
Major political events, such as the first Intifada from and the second Intifada from , and their negative effects on safety, the political climate, the economy, and education, forced more Palestinians to leave the Occupied Territories and prevented many others from returning. Palestinians living in Arab countries, however, developed their own patterns of migration, closely linked to political developments inside and outside the region.
On one level, such population movement was caused by changes in the relationship between Arab host governments and the Palestinian leadership. In addition, PLO cadres and their families followed the PLO leadership to various Arab countries or were sent to other countries for organizational purposes. At other times, Palestinians in Arab countries were caught up in larger political and military conflicts, such as the Lebanese Civil War — and the first Gulf War The civil war in Lebanon and the forced removal of the PLO and its military units from Lebanon in after the Israeli invasion was a major cause of migration.
During the war, Palestinians who sought safety and wanted to escape the volatile situation were accepted by Western countries as refugees or asylum seekers. In the wake of the events, PLO officials, their staffs, and their families left for Tunisia , where the PLO had reached an agreement with the government to temporarily establish its headquarters.
The Gulf War of resulted in the expulsion of a large number of Palestinians and their families from Kuwait , mainly as punishment for the Palestinian support for Iraq during the war. Many attempted to settle into a difficult life in Jordan after losing their livelihood and savings in Kuwait. Some held the necessary documents to return to the Occupied Territories, and others sought a new life elsewhere in the world.
Palestinians Born in Exile: Diaspora and the Search for a Homeland
The fall of Iraqi president Saddam Hussein in and subsequent developments in Iraq have contributed to the deterioration of the situation of Palestinians in Iraq who were politically favored by the Iraqi regime. They have experienced severe hardships and marginalization, and many have reportedly attempted to leave Iraq permanently. In the Arab population of historical Palestine numbered approximately 1.
In estimates of the number of Palestinians in the world ranged from 7. In the absence of a Palestinian state to issue passports, Palestinians in Palestine and the diaspora carry refugee travel documents or, where available, passports of current or past host countries. Thus reliable data on Palestinian demographics is scarce. Nevertheless, demographics play an important role in the political discourse on the Palestinian refugee problem and its possible solutions, and thus carry tremendous symbolic weight.
Palestinians Born in Exile: Diaspora and the Search for a Homeland - Juliane Hammer - Google книги
Four main groups of Palestinians can be distinguished according to location: those living in Israel, in the West Bank and Gaza, in Arab countries, and in Western countries. The reason that some of those living in the territory of historical Palestine are included in this overview is the fact that many who were internally displaced during the wars perceive their lives as shaped by a sense of inner diaspora, a temporal and special dislocation from their place of origin.
This is a sentiment that should not be discounted and that has shaped various expressions of Palestinian national and cultural identity. The Palestinians inside Israel number less than one million people and constitute approximately 20 percent of the total population of Israel. A significant number of the Palestinians in Israel are internally displaced and consider themselves internal refugees. Many of them have repeatedly attempted to return to their villages or resettle in close proximity to their place of origin; they live in unrecognized villages without access to Israeli health care, education, or social welfare services.
Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza are divided into refugees and nonrefugees. In June the total refugee population of the West Bank registered with UNRWA was , with 26 percent or , living in nineteen official refugee camps. The number of refugees who need UNRWA assistance has dramatically increased since the beginning of the second Intifada, which led to the Israeli reinvasion of Palestinian territories, economic isolation, and political violence.
Since , unprecedented numbers of Palestinian refugees in the West Bank and Gaza have been pushed into poverty. The largest of the Palestinian diaspora communities is situated in Jordan and numbers approximately 2. UNRWA reported 1,, registered refugees in Jordan as of June , 16 percent of whom lived in the ten official refugee camps.
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They are refugees from both the and wars and their descendants. A significant number of Palestinians in Jordan carry Jordanian passports, have the right to vote and hold office, enjoy full rights to public services such as higher education, and can work in the government sector. The legal, economic, and social situation of Palestinians in Jordan can be considered far better than in other countries, and some scholars even speak of a virtual merge of Palestinian and Jordanian identity.
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The Palestinians in Jordan are widely expected to stay in Jordan, even if the right of return may be achieved during future negotiations. Generally, it is assumed that return to a Palestinian state established in the West Bank and Gaza will be a more likely option for the refugees, while many of the refugees insist on the literal right of return to homes and villages now in Israel. Palestinians in Lebanon face the harshest socioeconomic conditions: their Lebanese travel documents are not recognized by most countries in the world, and they must obtain work and travel permits issued by the Lebanese authorities and are not allowed to work in the public sector and a long list of other professions.
Changes in existing laws are closely linked to Lebanese domestic politics.